Musing About North Korea and Her Behavior…

On the 15th of April 1969, just two short months after my arrival in country, at 1:30 p.m. local time, a U.S. Navy reconnaissance plane, an EC-121 Warning Star, was shot down by North Korean fighters over the Sea of Japan, killing all 31 aboard. North Korea claimed it had violated their air space.

“That’s bullshit,” I thought, but then remembered, “It’s Kim Il-Sung’s birthday!  There’s got to be a connection.”

In response, I Corps (GP) executed Eighth Army’s order to DEFCON-2[i], which drove the immediate deployment of 500,000 South Korean regulars to defensive positions spanning the entire length of the DMZ.  In under 24-hours, a far greater force, 2,300,000 home guard troops, was moving up online, too. It was staggering to witness. There were endless trucks, jeeps, tanks, aircraft, and soldiers.  American compounds were sealed as part of this increased readiness. Troops on leave and in-country were recalled.  All military members within the I Corps (GP) area of operations was armed and made battle ready.  The shit had indeed hit the fan.

As the signal officer―the battalion hadn’t had one in over six months―I was saddled with implementing our command and control (C2) plan, one that had not had the dust brushed from it in months, if not years.  I found, therefore, that dozens of radios were still in storage rather than being properly mounted on their assigned vehicles, and so I started to correct this, a process that took several, 24-hour days.  Many jeeps had to be modified more than once, as various staff activities quarreled over possession, which made some jeeps soon look like Swiss cheese because of the mounting, dismounting, and remounting of radios; as demands shifted between the S-1, 2, 3, and 4 staff functions.  The commander’s vehicle needed an additional AN/VRC-46 FM radio to supplement the one already installed, this, so he could monitor two “nets” simultaneously, as specified in the war plan.  My crews updated dozens of jeeps and trucks to comply with that plan.  The firing batteries (outlying, subordinate units) did analogous work to ensure their readiness as well.

On April 20th, Sunday morning, I was ordered to attend the Corps Commander’s brief at the I Corps TOC (Tactical Operations Center)―DEFCON-2 had by then been fully implemented.  I reported as instructed and found the TOC jam-packed, perhaps fifty senior officers representing the Corps HQ, 2nd and 7th Division, three Korean Divisions and a Korean Marine Corps Armor Brigade, totaling, I was told, 160,000 men.  When General Yarborough, the Corps Commander, entered in civilian dress−he’d just come from church−all present snapped to attention.  He sat and received briefings from the G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5 in order.  When they were finished, the room fell silent, all eyes on the general.  He asked one or two questions of the G2.  Satisfied with the response he stood up, quietly stepped over to the briefing map, touched it at a specific point, dragged his finger to another point and said, “Move 7th Division there,” and as he turned to depart, the room again snapped to attention.  As the general left, the Chief of Staff replied, “Yes, sir.”

The impact of those few words was astonishing.  In moments, literally moments, the order was flashed throughout the Corps AO[ii].  Units were alerted. Phone lines and radio nets jammed up, and tens of thousands of soldiers in the Corps area began to move.  It was a sight to behold.  Fortunately, my work was largely done.  All communications assets were in their proper place, tested and fully operational, and this because we’d been working nonstop since entering DEFCON-2.  My platoon was ready, so I could observe the 2nd and 7th Divisions in motion, South Korean soldiers, too, by the hundreds of thousands moving up online across the breadth and depth of the DMZ; two and one-half million men entering their final defensive positions.  It was exhilarating and mesmerizing, but I understood, too, that such a force could not long be restrained.  Given enough time, defense must turn offense, and I wondered.

That same afternoon, I saw, flying overhead, a large fleet of fighter aircraft with three McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom IIs in the vanguard. [iii] They led a fleet of aging North American F86 Sabers, 99 aircraft in all.  It was a deliberate show of force, one traversing the demilitarized zone for all to see, east to west.  It was a powerful show, which started me thinking globally, both physically and mentally.  North Korea’s behavior was, is, and remains bad.  It has not, in the intervening decades, improved a whit. They kill, cheat, lie, torture, steal from and starve their own people, and spew their venomous hate without surcease. Should we then negotiate?  Talk?  Find common ground?  “No!” I say, “Talk is cheap, and in this case, most demonstrably fruitless.” In truth, the North Korean government ought to be destroyed, lock, stock, and barrel.  General MacArthur had been right; Truman wrong.  No good can come of North Korea’s continuance.  Lawyers−who comprise an inordinately large percentage of our three branches of government−endlessly argue this. That’s what they do, argue.[iv]  Yet it remains true that “The law‐abiding pace is a cold, deliberate, and constrained one, and is not the kind that can hold up against a lawless and unbridled pace.”[v]  North Korea is, however, a lawless and unbridled pacer, 46,000 square miles of trouble, controlled by an undeniable, demonstrably evil dictatorship, yet legal ‘thinkers; politicians, continue their endless protests; their trifling language, wholly foreign to the rest of us, yet nothing more, in fact, than full employment for lawyers. Montaigne saw this with great clarity more than 400 years ago.[vi]  Lawyers like to claim they are concerned with justice and truth, but what does that mean?  Are not justice and truth the same?  Wiser, more astute and knowledgeable people than I have considered this question in great depth, and happily; they agree with me: No. Justice and truth are not the same, not at all.[vii] Even so, because few understand this completely, I record it here in the fervent hope of improving understanding, and this with as much objectivity as I can muster, and unvarnished, undecorated, and unadorned.  I have thus concluded that the word negotiation ought to be removed from our language.  It is more trouble than it is worth.  It is, in fact, mere talk, and again, talk is cheap, which a blind man can see: North Korea=unmitigated poverty; South Korea=unimaginable prosperity.  Which embodies virtue?  Which would you choose?

Click here for more.

[i] DEFCON=Defense Condition 1=War Imminent; 2=High State of Readiness; 3=State of Readiness beyond ‘normal’; 4=Increase Watchfulness (intelligence) and tighten Security Measures; 5=Routine Readiness.

[ii] AO: Area of Operations

[iii] These aircraft were not yet deployed to Korea, so I assumed they were likely other assets, perhaps naval aircraft, but Phantoms they were, unmistakably.

[iv] “…probabilities and plausible arguments involve no knowledge concerning truth, but trial and disputation and wrangling conflict and contentiousness and everything of that sort.” — Philo, Volume I, Book III, edited by G. P. Gould, The Loeb Classical Library (LCL 226), Page 459, year 1991.

[v]The Complete ESSAYS OF MONTAIGNE, Translated by Donald M. Frame, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California; Copyright 1943 by Donald M. Frame, renewed 1971. Copyright © 1948, 1957, and 1958 by the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University, Page 89.

[vi] “Why is it that our common language, so easy for any other use, becomes obscure and unintelligible in contracts and wills, and that a man who expresses himself so clearly, whatever he says or writes, finds in this [the legal] field no way of speaking his mind that does not fall into doubt and contradiction? Unless it is that the princes of this art [lawyers], applying themselves with particular attention to picking out solemn words and contriving artificial phrases, have so weighed every syllable, so minutely examined every sort of combination, that they are at last entangled and embroiled in the endless number of figures and in such minute partitions that they can no longer fall under any rule or prescription or any certain interpretation.” ― The Complete ESSAYS OF MONTAIGNE, Translated by Donald M. Frame, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California; Copyright 1943 by Donald M. Frame, renewed 1971.  Copyright © 1948, 1957, and 1958 by the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University, Page 816.

[vii] “Here is the essential difference between historical and legal evidence ― or between historical and legal thinking.  Law (at least in a state governed by a constitution) can deal only with actuality, not with potentiality.  “The law is a coarse net; and truth is a slippery fish.”  Yes, but the purpose of law has nothing to do with truth: it is the establishment of justice.  Truth and justice are not the same things, even though the pursuit of truth and the pursuit of justice may, on occasion, overlap.  But besides the question (or, rather, the obvious primacy) of truth over justice, there are other important differences between historical and legal evidences and thinking.  One is that law, after all ― inevitably and necessarily ― is a closed system, within its own definite rules and regulations.  For instance, it does not and should not allow multiple jeopardy: a case, when and if properly tried, is decided once and for all.  History (and our memory) is open and never closed; it specializes in multiple jeopardy: its subjects and people are rethought over and over again, and not even necessarily on the basis of newly found evidence. . . .  Another great difference ―   I am again referring principally to Anglo-American law ― is the one between motives and purposes.  These two are regrettably confused because of the vocabulary and the practices of twentieth -century psychology and thought, the attribution of motive having become a pestilential habit.  But we must distinguish between the two.  Motives come from the past; purposes involve the pull of the future.  At its best, Anglo-American law will admit only a “motive” which has been, in one way or another, expressed; in other words, an actuality, not a potentiality.  (As Dr. Johnson said: “Intentions must be gathered from acts.”)  At its worst, unexpressed motives are sometime attributed and accepted in some courts on the basis of psychological characterization and other dubious “expertise.”  A proper comprehension of the essential difference between motives and purposes is an essential condition of the pursuit and of the protection of justice and of truth ― and of all historical thinking and speaking and writing.” ― Remembered Past; On History, Historians, and Historical Knowledge, by John Lukacs, Chapter I, Page 8, edited by Mark G. Malvasi and Jeffrey O. Nelson, ISI Books, Wilmington, Delaware, © 2005 ISI Books.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Today’s ceaseless crises, i.e., date rape, global warming, environmental destruction, racial conflict is all charade for acquiring and exercising political power. It is nothing more.

Georges Bernanos
1888 – 1948

Regarding such untruth, Bernanos, a writer and polemicist warned: “the charade will go on until, on the other side of death, that first glance from the Judge will make it all fly into smithereens.” [i] His message is clear, reform while there is still time, for as the ancients understood so very well, “…when the body is wrecked with the mighty strength of time, and the frame has succumbed with blunted strength, the intellect limps, the tongue babbles, the intelligence totters, all is wanting and fails at the same time.” [ii]

 

Blog Author

In that regard, I ask, “What then?”


[i] (2011-10-20). Bernanos (Communio Books) (Kindle Locations 5270-5271). Ignatius Press. Kindle Edition.

[ii] Lucretius, De Rerum Natura, with English translation by W. H. D. Rouse, revised by Martin Ferguson Smith, Copyright © 1975, 1992 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College, Loeb Classical Library (LCL 181), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts; London England, Page 223.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

A most wise recommendation when it comes to investing…

Winston Spencer Churchill

“There is no finer investment for any community than putting milk into babies.” ― Churchill, The Last Lion, Winston Spenser Churchill, Visions of Glory, 1874-1932, by William Manchester, Page 414.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

In a Secular Age How Does One Come to Believe in the Transcendent; God?

Philo of Alexandria (20 BC—40 AD)

“How should one come to believe God? By learning that all other things change but he is unchangeable.” — Philo, Volume I, Book II, edited by G. P. Gould, The Loeb Classical Library (LCL 226), Page 281, year 1991.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Some anecdotal reminders of the enormity of WWII, a history largely untaught by the American Academy (our public school system), and of which many might unthinkingly say, “Mistakes were made”.

“September 1, 1939, was the first day of a war that would claim an average 27,600 lives every day, or 1,150 an hour, or 19 a minute, or one death every 3 seconds.” [i]

“In September 1939, the U.S. Army had ranked seventeenth in the world in size and combat power, just behind Romania.” [ii]

“Another three weeks would pass before ordnance officers discovered that American tank crews had gone into combat with training ammunition rather than more explosive, more lethal armor-piercing rounds.” [iii]

“A train supposedly hauling rations to Béja for 50,000 men was found upon arrival to carry one sack of flour, a case of grapefruit juice, a boxcar of crackers, and sixteen boxcars of peanut butter.” [iv]

“Private First Class Audie L. Murphy, not yet nineteen and weighing in at 110 pounds, would become the most decorated American combat soldier in history, but not even the appearance of his like would free most troops from compulsory service for the duration.” [v]

“The German submariner casualty rate during the war, 75 percent, would exceed that of every other service arm in every other nation.” [vi]

“…Terry de la Mesa Allen. Before flunking out of West Point, he had amassed demerits for tardiness, bathing at midnight, yawning in class, yelling during a fire drill, and breaking ranks to pet a dog. As a young officer he “loved horses, women, dancing, and drinking,” and as a major he graduated at the bottom of the staff college class in which a certain Major Eisenhower finished at the very top. Yet he knew how to fight and he knew how to lead, and the Army valued both enough to make Allen the first among his former West Point classmates to wear a general’s stars. Now he wore a pair, the insignia of a major general.” [vii]

“From a four-inch hole in his right thigh, a surgeon pulled a one-pound shell fragment, which [Roy] Bates now clutched. “As soon as I get well,” he promised, “I’m going back up there and cram this thing down somebody’s throat.”” An Army at Dawn, The War in North Africa, 1942-1943, Copyright © 2002 by Rick Atkinson, Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY, Page 209.

“One survivor wrote, “I saw a man dragging a sack with five or six bulges in it as if he were carrying heads of cabbages. It was the heads of his family, a whole family, that he had found in the cellar.”” [viii]

“A single American 105mm howitzer firing at its maximum rate could lob 4,000 pounds of shells in an hour over a 43,000 square yard area; American gunners now massed more than 300 guns, spitting eleven tons of steel each minute.” [ix]

“On June 22, nearly 200 German divisions invaded the Soviet Union in abrogation of the nonaggression pact that Hitler and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin had signed in 1939, which had allowed a division of spoils in Eastern Europe.  Within a day, German attacks had demolished one-quarter of the Soviet air force.  Within four months, the Germans had occupied 600,000 square miles of Russian soil, captured 3 million Red Army troops, butchered countless Jews and other civilians, and closed to within 60 miles of Moscow. But four months after that, more than 200,000 Wehrmacht troops had been killed, 726,000 wounded, 400,000 captured, and another 113,000 had been incapacitated by frostbite.” [x]

“On a rainy Thursday evening, December 14, Dietrich performed in the tiny Belgian town of Bastogne, headquarters VIII Corps. She tried not to scratch at the lice as she sang “Lili Marlene.” [xi]

“Straw and rags muffled gun wheels and horses’ hooves as twenty German divisions lumbered into their final assembly areas on Friday night, December 15.” [xii]

“The initial blow by seven panzer divisions and thirteen of infantry, bolstered by almost two thousand artillery tubes and a thousand tanks and assault guns, would fall on a front sixty-one miles wide.” [xiii]

“A few miles to the east, the faint clop of horses and a growl of engines in low gear drifted to American pickets along the Our River, demarcating Luxembourg from Germany. Their report of disturbing noises in the night ascended the chain of command from one headquarters to the next, with no more heed paid than had been paid to earlier portents.” [xiv]

“The struggle would last for a month, embroiling more than a million men drawn from across half the continent to this haunted upland [Bastogne].” [xv]

“Even as American losses in the Pacific spiraled, roughly one in ten U.S. casualties during World War II occurred in the Bulge, where 600,000 GIs fought, fourfold the number of combatants in blue and gray at Gettysburg. More than 23,000 were taken prisoner; most spent the duration in German camps, living on seven hundred calories a day and drinking ersatz coffee “so foul we used to bath in it,” as one captured officer later recalled.” [xvi]

“…30,000 U.S. enlisted men…received battlefield commissions during the war.” [xvii]

“By war’s end the United States had sent its allies 37,000 tanks, 800,000 trucks, nearly 2 million rifles, and 43,000 planes ─ so many that U.S. pilot training was curtailed because of aircraft shortages.” [xviii]

———————————————————————————————————-

[i] An Army at Dawn, The War in North Africa, 1942-1943, Copyright © 2002 by Rick Atkinson, Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY, Page 5. (1939 WP: 2.4 billion – 2016: 7.36 billion)

[ii] An Army at Dawn, The War in North Africa, 1942-1943, Copyright © 2002 by Rick Atkinson, Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY, Page 8.

[iii] An Army at Dawn, The War in North Africa, 1942-1943, Copyright © 2002 by Rick Atkinson, Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY, Page 235.

[iv] An Army at Dawn, The War in North Africa, 1942-1943, Copyright © 2002 by Rick Atkinson, Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY, Page 414.

[v] An Army at Dawn, The War in North Africa, 1942-1943, Copyright © 2002 by Rick Atkinson, Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY, Page 535.

[vi] The Day of Battle, The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943-1944, Copyright © 2007 by Rick Atkinson, Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY, Page 5.

[vii] The Day of Battle, The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943-1944, Copyright © 2007 by Rick Atkinson, Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY, Page 99.

[viii] ─ The Guns at Last Light, The War in Western Europe, 1944-1945, Copyright © 2013 by Rick Atkinson, Page 360.

[ix] An Army at Dawn, The War in North Africa, 1942-1943, Copyright © 2002 by Rick Atkinson, Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY, Page 500.

[x] An Army at Dawn, The War in North Africa, 1942-1943, Copyright © 2002 by Rick Atkinson, Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY, Page 8.

[xi] ─ The Guns at Last Light, The War in Western Europe, 1944-1945, Copyright © 2013 by Rick Atkinson, Page 416.

[xii] ─ The Guns at Last Light, The War in Western Europe, 1944-1945, Copyright © 2013 by Rick Atkinson, Page 418.

[xiii] ─ The Guns at Last Light, The War in Western Europe, 1944-1945, Copyright © 2013 by Rick Atkinson, Page 419.

[xiv] ─ The Guns at Last Light, The War in Western Europe, 1944-1945, Copyright © 2013 by Rick Atkinson, Page 419.

[xv] ─ The Guns at Last Light, The War in Western Europe, 1944-1945, Copyright © 2013 by Rick Atkinson, Page 421.

[xvi] ─ The Guns at Last Light, The War in Western Europe, 1944-1945, Copyright © 2013 by Rick Atkinson, Page 488.

[xvii] ─ The Guns at Last Light, The War in Western Europe, 1944-1945, Copyright © 2013 by Rick Atkinson, Page 491.

[xviii] An Army at Dawn, The War in North Africa, 1942-1943, Copyright © 2002 by Rick Atkinson, Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY, Page 7.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Willie Pete! – White Phosphorus, an anecdote and antedote for any who might claim, “Serving in combat positions is an equal opportunity”

Willie Pete! – White Phosphorus

“American artillery swept the slopes with white phosphorous, silhouetting the attackers and splattering Krauts, Teds, and Blonds with incandescent flakes. A speck the size of a pinhead would burn clean through a man’s leg unless plucked out with forceps or smothered with a mud poultice. “─ The Day of Battle, The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943-1944, Copyright © 2007 by Rick Atkinson, Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY, Page 288.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

“Civilization is in a sense a matter of feeling shame in the appropriate places.” – Charles Taylor

When thinking about or discussing homosexuality remember that: “…probabilities and plausible arguments involve no knowledge concerning truth, but trial and disputation and wrangling conflict and contentiousness and everything of that sort.” [i]

Homosexuality ̶ The Gay Lifestyle; Being Gay; Gayness; Queer; Lesbianism, LGBTQ and other similar or derivative descriptives no matter their provenance are, like schizophrenia or pedophilia, psychiatrically treatable mental disorders, which begs these questions:

  • “Why do those suffering from mental disorders avoid treatment?”
  • “Why do those suffering from mental disorders wish to mainstream and legitimize their own behavioral illness?
  • “Why does an otherwise rational community cave to the wishes of those suffering from mental disorders and consent to mainstreaming them; normalizing such abnormal behavior?
  • “Why not mainstream and legitimize other mental disorders as well, like schizophrenia or pedophilia?

Justices Anthony M. Kennedy, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Stephen G. Breyer, Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan are, quite historically (and morally), wrong about homosexual activity, which is flatly forbidden in the Old Testament, the New Testament, and the Holy Qur’an. Normalizing, mainstreaming, or medicalizing[ii] such mental disorders and behavior has become pestilential in the post-modern west and makes no more sense than normalizing schizophrenia or pedophilia.

Schizophrenia: “A worldwide prevalence of nearly 1% makes schizophrenia one of the most widespread disorders known, and its impact on affected individuals, family members, and society as a whole would be difficult to overstate. Primarily characterized as a disorder of disrupted cognitive and emotional processing, the disease strikes at those characteristics that make us human. It’s usual onset in early adulthood tends to derail social relationships and interrupt educational or career plans. Coupled with the chronic nature of the cognitive and emotional debilitation, affected individuals most often experience lifelong occupational disability and disrupted social relationships. In the United States alone, the cost of disease regarding treatment expense and lost productivity was estimated at more than $30 billion in 1990. As a further measurement of the impact of the disease, most estimates indicate that as many as a third of homeless Americans have schizophrenia.”[iii]

Gender Dysphoria (Homosexuality): This disorder is more widespread than schizophrenia. “Based on the 2013 NHIS data, 96.6% of adults identified as straight, 1.6% identified as gay or lesbian, and 0.7% identified as bisexual. The remaining 1.1% of adults identified as ‘‘something else,’’ stated ‘‘I don’t know the answer,’’ or refused to provide an answer. Significant differences were found in health-related behaviors, health status, health care service utilization, and health care access among U.S. adults aged 18–64 who identified as straight, gay or lesbian, or bisexual.”[iv]

Gender Dysphoria is more prevalent than Schizophrenia, yet there is a rush to normalize, mainstream, and medicalize it than any might consider for Schizophrenia or pedophilia, which is non-sequitur.

And why, pray tell, does anyone pay attention to lawyers and their arguments? Why are lawyers trusted at all? After all, and again their “…probabilities and plausible arguments involve no knowledge concerning truth, but trial and disputation and wrangling conflict and contentiousness and everything of that sort.” [v] And yes, this is how we have arrived at the mainstreaming of behavioral disorders like Gender Dysphoria, through specious argument and vexatious molding of American youth by the American Academy abetted by the U.S. Department of Education and the mainstream media, a most shameful and unforgivable trespass. Too, this mainstreaming has needlessly, and dangerously, degraded our military.

This latter is a problem that demands immediate address because such mental disorders and behavioral neglect are prejudicial to the good order and discipline within our armed forces.[vi] Homosexuals bring disorder because they are disordered. Integrating homosexuals into military service by President Obama and his political party was wrong, wrong-headed, and dangerously careless.

This will remain a contentious issue for many, which also suggests unforeseen dangers for society as a whole and the west and the United States of America in particular.


[i] Philo, Volume I, Book III, edited by G. P. Gould, The Loeb Classical Library (LCL 226), Page 459, year 1991.

[ii] “Mainstream medicine objectifies the body and its processes, and what I called medicalization extends this objectification to vice.” ― from A Secular Age, Copyright © 2007 by Charles Taylor, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England, 2007, Page 507.

[iii] http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(11)62528-7/fulltext

[iv] https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr077.pdf

[v] Philo, Volume I, Book III, edited by G. P. Gould, The Loeb Classical Library (LCL 226), Page 459, year 1991.

[vi] UCMJ: § 934. Art. 134. General article Though not specifically mentioned in this chapter, all disorders and neglects to the prejudice of good order and discipline in the armed forces, all conduct of a nature to bring discredit upon the armed forces, and crimes and offenses not capital, of which persons subject to this chapter may be guilty, shall be taken cognizance of by a general, special, or summary court-martial, according to the nature and degree of the offense, and shall be punished at the discretion of that court.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 76.)

 

Posted in Uncategorized | 2 Comments